Excessive body weight - excessive increase in the fat component is one of the main problems of today. The main reason for excessive weight is hormonal imbalance. It most often occurs as a result of excessive intake of food and fluids. In certain cases, there is an additional contributing factor such as stress, lack of sleep, as well as certain medications that can have a negative impact on weight and thus cause further stress. It should be noted that genetics is not considered a key factor in overweight people.

In most cases a reduction in the daily intake of food and fluids, and a certain increase in physical activity will be sufficient for weight loss or fat component reduction. If excess weight is also caused by the abovementioned additional contributing factors, it is necessary to seek additional professional assistance. In the author’s experience, the best results are achieved by having certain blood tests conducted before diet change; and by having certain tests conducted if the client wants to start a more advanced program of physical activity. If you start a program and there are no visible results within 3 weeks, it is necessary to seek expert assistance.


1- Cardiac test

2- Flexibility test

3- Strength test

4- Blood test - desirable

5- Specific test indicating damage to the skeletal system due to weight gain.


A strength building program is similar to a muscle building program, i.e. hypertrophy, only at first glance. Strength is a specific feature of muscles and it is not always associated with the muscle mass gain.

There are many strength classifications; one of them is presented below:

-Maximum strength
-Rep maximum
-Explosive strength


1- Strength test, which indicates your current condition

2- Flexibility test/ important because it may indicate a potential injury

3- Cardiac test/ in some cases, including family history of elevated blood pressure, stroke etc., an adequate strength training program cannot be designed without improving the cardiorespiratory system.

4- Check for a limiting factor, e.g. musculoskeletal system injuries, the presence of certain diseases affecting the joints, e.g. osteoporosis


There are several types and divisions of endurance. We can opt for the anaerobic/ with the absence of oxygen and aerobic/ with the presence of oxygen. Cardiorespiratory endurance, i.e. with the presence of oxygen is the most important type of endurance for a vast majority of people; therefore, it shall be considered as primary by the author.

Aerobic endurance gives us the best insight into the cardiorespiratory system. Aerobic training is an indispensable component of any program, not only because of its impact on the cardiorespiratory system, but also because of its impact on the fat component, muscles, including recovery after a certain type of training, e.g. elimination of lactic acid after strength training.


1- Set the objective of the aerobic training program

2- Check for a limiting factor, e.g. skeletal system injuries and family history of cardiorespiratory diseases

3- Cardiac test

Note: In certain cases, cardiac tests can be very dangerous for the subject’s health and they are not to be conducted without medical supervision. This primarily relates to overweight subjects, subjects with a family history of cardiorespiratory diseases such as elevated blood pressure or myocardial infarction. In these cases a sub-maximal cardiac test should be conducted.


Prior to designing coordination and balance promotion programs, specific tests should be conducted and an objective clearly defined. Programs are most often designed for a specific sport, or a demanding recreational athlete with a specific objective, e.g. snow skiing program for beginners. In certain injuries this program is an essential part of recovery.


1- Basic testing

2- Eliminate factors affecting coordination/ balance such as the lack of technique, e.g. a person who has never skied cannot take the proper stance during the descent

3- Check for a limiting factor in the musculoskeletal system/ old injury etc.

4- Check for a limiting factor in the vestibular system, i.e. the system for maintaining balance

5- Certain medications can affect this ability, e.g. antipsychotics
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Flexibility training programs depend on gender, age, previous injuries, if any, and the objective of the program. Less important factors in program designing, but none the less present, are outside temperature, time of day of training and warm-up which directly affects training duration and intensity.


1- Flexibility test/ results can be expressed in centimeters, degrees etc., which indicates your current condition.

2- Strength test/ in certain cases, large muscle mass, as well as decreased muscle mass, may affect joint flexibility and thereby limit movement, in which case it is necessary to align the muscle building program with the flexibility training program.

3- Check for a limiting factor, e.g. musculoskeletal system injuries, the presence of certain diseases affecting the joints, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis etc.


The program is based on 2 key components

1- Increased calorie intake - is based on the total daily intake and not only on the increase in the daily dietary protein intake. Despite popular belief, there is no concrete evidence to support the given theory as a whole.

2- Specific training program dominated by the use of weights - can be own weight and/or additional/ weights, machines etc.
Note: Testing is obligatory before designing a program and it must include: strength test, basic flexibility test/ which can indicate risk of injury during training, and cardiac test/ despite this being a program aimed at muscle mass gain, cardiac testing results are highly important because the heart is a specific muscle, and at the same time, the most important one for your training process. Very often, a given program is not suitable for you, i.e. it is not complete without a cardiac test.


1- Strength test

2- Flexibility test

3- Cardiac test

4- If there is a certain risk of injury or a family history of stroke/ elevated blood pressure etc., it is necessary to have a blood test conducted.


Speed, as such, constitutes a puzzle. According to some authors it is up to 90% genetically determined. When designing a program take note of the difference between speed and acceleration. Speed components, inter alia, include - speed of response, and segmentary speed, and speed training programs are, therefore, mainly intended for recreational athletes with specific objectives.


1- Conduct a test to determine the subject’s current condition

2- Check for a limiting factor, e.g. bone, joint, or muscle injuries

3- Set the objective of the program